Sleep profiles in children with 22q deletion syndrome: a study of 100 consecutive children seen in a multidisciplinary clinic
While previous studies have suggested a high prevalence of sleep disorders in children with 22q deletion syndrome (22qDS), they were limited by potential selection bias. In the current investigation, we assessed sleep characteristics in 100 consecutive children presenting to a 22qDS multidisciplinary clinic.
Observational retrospective case series of consecutive children presenting to 22qDS multidisciplinary clinic was performed. Children aged 2 to 17 years of age were included, and data were abstracted including sleep characteristics (sleep history, Childhood Sleep Habits Questionnaire [CSHQ], and free response questions), comorbid medical conditions, and demographics.
Overall, 100 children were included in analysis, 85% of whom had scores on the CSHQ consistent with clinically meaningful sleep disorder. Sleep problems were common in all domains of the CSHQ, including daytime sleepiness (66%), sleep onset delay (54%), parasomnias (52%), night wakings (52%), sleep disordered breathing (49%), sleep duration (45%), bedtime resistance (38%), and sleep anxiety (33%). Overall CSHQ score was significantly associated with daytime behavioral problems and speech delay (F(2,97) = 10.4, p <0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.16). The most common interventions reported to be helpful for sleep by parents were behavioral (routine, bedtime story), environmental (light avoidance at night, calming music), and pharmacologic (melatonin, clonidine).
These data confirm a high prevalence of sleep disorders in a large, unselected sample of children with 22qDS, and suggest an important relationship between sleep dysfunction and daytime behavioral challenges. Our findings highlight the potential role for multimodal treatment approaches including behavioral, environmental, and pharmacologic interventions.
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