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Volume 15 No. 09
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Accepted Papers





Scientific Investigations

Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Pattern in Old Order Amish and Non-Amish Adults

Man Zhang, PhD1; Kathleen A. Ryan, MS1; Emerson Wickwire, PhD2,3; Teodor T. Postolache, MD4,5; Huichun Xu, PhD1; Melanie Daue, BS1; Soren Snitker, MD1; Toni I. Pollin, PhD1; Alan R. Shuldiner, MD1; Braxton D. Mitchell, PhD1,6
1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; 3Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; 4Mood and Anxiety Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; 5Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Aurora, Colorado; 6Geriatrics Research and Education Clinical Center, Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland

Study Objectives:

We hypothesized that sleep duration in the Amish would be longer than in non-Amish.

Methods:

Sleep duration was obtained by questionnaire administered to Amish individuals (n = 3,418) and from the 2015–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 1,912). Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as the difference in usual times that the participants went to bed at night and woke up in the morning.

Results:

In Amish (43.7 ± 16.7 years) and NHANES (50.0 ± 20.6 years), women had a longer sleep duration than men (P < .0001 in both groups) and sleep was significantly longer in those aged 18–29 years and ≥ 70 years, compared to those aged 30–69 years. Seasonal-adjusted sleep duration was shorter in Amish than that in NHANES (7.8 minutes shorter, age- and sex-adjusted P < .0001). However, Amish were less likely to report sleeping fewer than 7 hours per night (15.4% in Amish versus 20.5% in NHANES, P < .0001). Amish went to bed 80.4 minutes earlier than NHANES and arose 87.6 minutes earlier (age-, sex-, and season-adjusted P < .0001 for both). In the Amish, sleep duration was longer in clerks than in farmers (P < .0001) and was significantly correlated among household members (.15 < r < .62, P < .001), although there was no evidence that this trait was heritable (h2 approximately 0) after adjustment for household.

Conclusions:

The lower frequency of short sleepers in the Amish may contribute to the relatively lower risks of cardiometabolic diseases observed in this population.

Citation:

Zhang M, Ryan KA, Wickwire E, Postolache TT, Xu H, Daue M, Snitker S, Pollin TI, Shuldiner AR, Mitchell BD. Self-reported sleep duration and pattern in old order amish and non-amish adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(9):1321–1328.




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