Electroencephalographic Patterns During Routine Polysomnography in Childhood and Association With Future Epilepsy Diagnosis
Evaluate the frequency of abnormal electroencephalograph (EEG) records during pediatric polysomnography (PSG) at a tertiary referral center and determine frequency with which these records may predict future seizures and a diagnosis of epilepsy.
Retrospective review of all pediatric PSG reports from 2013 was performed. Demographics, medical history, indications, diagnoses, and EEG reports were collected. Patients were evaluated for follow-up of future diagnosis of seizure or epilepsy over a 30-month period.
A total of 1,969 studies (56.9% males, median age 7 years) were analyzed. Abnormal EEG results were detected in 314 studies (15.9%); abnormalities included slowing in 75 (3.8%) and interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in 239 (12.1%). Incidental abnormal EEG recordings were found in 186 patients (9.4%) without a prior diagnosis of seizure or epilepsy. Incidental IEDs were recorded in 126 (6.4%) and were most commonly focal (66.7%). Ten patients received follow-up EEG without clinical follow-up, 68 received clinical follow-up without follow-up EEG, and 29 received both within a 30-month period. Follow-up EEG was normal in only 30.8% of cases. Thirteen patients in the 30-month window received a new diagnosis of epilepsy. Each new diagnosis occurred in patients with preexisting neurodevelopmental disorders at high risk for seizures.
Abnormal EEG during pediatric PSG without additional history of seizure is a poor prognosticator for a future diagnosis of epilepsy. Abnormalities detected on PSG did not always portend abnormal diagnostic EEG and thus its utility to corroborate findings does not appear to be supported without additional clinical context concerning for seizure.
Stowe RC, Glaze DG. Electroencephalographic patterns during routine polysomnography in childhood and association to future epilepsy diagnosis. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(4):553–562.
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