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Volume 14 No. 08
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Accepted Papers

Scientific Investigations

Sleep Hygiene Index: Psychometric Characteristics and Usefulness as a Screening Tool in a Sample of Nigerian Undergraduate Students

Champion T. Seun-Fadipe, MBChB, MSc, FMCPsych; Olutayo O. Aloba, MBChB, FWACPsych; Olakunle A. Oginni, MBBS, MSc, FWACPsych; Kolawole S. Mosaku, MBBS, MPH, FMCPsych
Mental Health Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Department of Mental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Study Objectives:

The objectives of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) and determine its capacity to screen for poor sleep quality in a nonclinical sample of Nigerian university students.


A total of 348 students appropriately completed the SHI, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).


The internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) of the SHI was .64 and its construct validity was modestly satisfactory. It had a significant negative correlation with the MEQ (r = −.170, P < .001) and positive correlations with global PSQI (r = .289, P < .001) and ESS (r = .219, P < .001) scores. Prior to the factor analysis, our sample was randomly divided into two. In one half of the sample (sample 1), exploratory factor analysis of the SHI items yielded a three-factor model. Confirmatory factor analysis on the other half (sample 2) corroborated this model with satisfactory indices of fitness (c2 = 67.805; df = 55; c2/df = 1.233; P = .115; goodness of fit index = .943; Tucker-Lewis index = .958; incremental fit index = .972; comparative fit index = .970; root mean square error of approximation = .037). A cutoff total score of 16 on the SHI had the best sensitivity (77.0%) and specificity (47.5%) to identify students who were categorized as experiencing poor sleep quality, according to the PSQI (area under the curve = 0.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.59–0.71).


The SHI exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties as a self-rated assessment instrument in the evaluation of sleep hygiene and as a screening instrument for poor sleep quality among Nigerian undergraduate students.


Seun-Fadipe CT, Aloba OO, Oginni OA, Mosaku KS. Sleep hygiene index: psychometric characteristics and usefulness as a screening tool in a sample of nigerian undergraduate students. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(8):1285–1292.

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