Continued Presence of Period Limb Movements During REM Sleep in Patients With Chronic Static Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)
A major component of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is disruption of sleep. These disturbances have been reported in the acute phase of diagnosis but it is unknown if these sleep disruptions persist, especially in patients with chronic static symptoms. This retrospective chart review sought to review polysomnography (PSG) tests of patients in whom PANS has been clinically diagnosed in order to assess sleep architecture, periodic limb movements, and presence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) after a chronic static course of symptoms, which were refractory to immunomodulatory interventions.
Patients were retrospectively identified through the PANS clinic at our institution and had to have fully completed a PSG study and be younger than 18 years. PSG with video were reviewed and scored based on established criteria.
We identified 9 patients who met inclusion criteria. The median time from presentation to PSG was 4 years. This study identified PSG-measured periodic limb movement index (PLMI) > 5 events/h in REM sleep in 7 of 9 patients. Two patients with elevated PLMI also demonstrated RSWA, although neither fit a clinical diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder. This cohort also demonstrated increased onset of REM sleep (median 134 minutes), insomnia (median total sleep time of 389 minutes), and decreased sleep efficiency (77%).
This study identifies continued sleep disturbances in patients with refractory PANS symptoms several years after diagnosis and treatment. Continued sleep disturbances after presentation and treatment in patients with chronic static PANS may be a contributing factor in prolonged symptomatology of this disease process.
Santoro JD, Frankovich J, Bhargava S. Continued presence of period limb movements during rem sleep in patients with chronic static pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(7):1187–1192.
Please login to continue reading the full article
Subscribers to JCSM get full access to current and past issues of the JCSM.
Login to JCSM
Not a subscriber?
Join the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and receive a subscription to JCSM with your membership
Subscribe to JCSM:
$75/volume year for individuals or $140/volume year for institutions to access all current articles and archives published in JCSM.
Download this article*:
$20 to access a PDF version of a specific article from the current issue of JCSM.
*Purchase of an electronic download of JCSM provides permission to access and print the issue/article for personal scholarly, research and educational use. Please note: access to the article is from the computer on which the article is purchased ONLY. Purchase of the article does not permit distribution, electronic or otherwise, of the article without the written permission of the AASM. Further, purchase does not permit the posting of article text on an online forum or website.