Objective measurements of thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA), such as average phase angle (θavg), can quantify airway obstruction. This study demonstrates and evaluates use of θavg for predicting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pediatric polysomnography (PSG).
This prospective observational study recruited otherwise healthy 3- to 8-year-old children presenting for PSG due to snoring, behavioral problems, difficulty sleeping, and/or enlarged tonsils. Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) was directly monitored and data were collected during each PSG. θavg and average labored breathing index (LBIavg) were calculated for earliest acceptable 5-minute periods of stage N3 sleep and stage R sleep. Associations between θavg and obstructive apnea index (OAI) and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI), as well as between LBIavg and OAI and OAHI, were examined.
Forty patients undergoing PSG were analyzed. Thirty percent of patients had OSA, 57.5% had enlarged tonsils, and 17.5% were obese. θavg during stage N3 sleep and stage R sleep had significant positive correlations with OAI (Spearman r = .35 [P = .03] and .40 [P = .01], respectively) and θavg during stage N3 sleep with OAHI (r = .35 [P = .03]). LBIavg showed lower correlations. Median θavg during stage R sleep (33.1) was significantly greater than during stage N3 sleep (13.7, P = .0005).
Association of θavg with OAI and OAHI shows that θavg reflects airway obstruction and has potential use as a quantitative indicator of OSA. RIP provides valuable information that is readily available in PSG. The significant difference between θavg in stage N3 sleep and stage R sleep confirms the clinical observation that there is more asynchrony during rapid eye movement sleep than non-rapid eye movement sleep.
Bronstein JZ, Xie L, Shaffer TH, Chidekel A, Heinle R. Quantitative analysis of thoracoabdominal asynchrony in pediatric polysomnography. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(7):1169–1176.