Many studies suggest an association of both short and long sleep duration with all-cause mortality, but the effect of co-occurrence of sleep duration and other lifestyle risk factors or health status remains unclear.
A total of 17,184 participants aged 18 years or older from rural areas of China were examined at baseline from 2007 to 2008 and followed up from 2013 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
During 6-year follow-up, we identified 1,101 deaths. The multivariable-adjusted mortality risk was significantly higher with short-duration sleepers (< 6.5 hours) (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01–1.86) and long-duration sleepers (≥ 9.5 hours) (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.05–1.74) versus 6.5–7.5 hours. The multiplicative interaction of long sleep duration with some lifestyle risk factors and health statuses increased the mortality risk in men (low level of physical activity: HR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.04; hypertension: HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.04–1.09; type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]: HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.11). Similar results were found in women (low level of physical activity: HR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.05; T2DM: HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.10).
Sleep duration could be a predictor of all-cause mortality and its interaction with physical activity, hypertension, and T2DM may increase the risk of mortality.
Liu F, Zhang H, Liu Y, Sun X, Yin Z, Li H, Deng K, Zhao Y, Wang B, Ren Y, Zhang L, Zhou J, Han C, Liu X, Zhang D, Chen G, Hong S, Wang C, Hu D, Zhang M. Sleep duration interacts with lifestyle risk factors and health status to alter risk of all-cause mortality: the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018;14(5):857–865.