Verhulst SL, Schrauwen N, Haentjens D, et al., authors. Sleep-disordered breathing in overweight and obese children and adolescents: prevalence, characteristics and the role of fat distribution. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:205–8. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Joshi B, McGuire E, Loloyan S, et al., authors. Characterizing sleep phenotypes in overweight adolescents who snore. Sleep. 2014;37(Abstract Suppl):A334.
Kheirandish-Gozal L, Bhattacharjee R, Gozal D, authors. Autonomic alterations and endothelial dysfunction in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med. 2010;11:714–20. [PubMed]
Lesser DJ, Bhatia R, Tran WH, et al., authors. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxemia are associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent Latino males. Pediatr Res. 2012;72:293–8. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Oliveira FM, Tran WH, Lesser D, et al., authors. Autonomic and metabolic effects of OSA in childhood obesity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:6134–7. [PubMed]
Li AM, So HK, Au CT, et al., authors. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in Chinese children: a two-phase community study. Thorax. 2010;65:991–7. [PubMed]
Shin C, Joo S, Kim J, Kim T, authors. Prevalence and correlates of habitual snoring in high school students. Chest. 2003;124:1709–15. [PubMed]
Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, et al., authors. Sleep disordered breathing in children in a general population sample: prevalence and risk factors. Sleep. 2009;32:731–6. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Schäfer H, Pauleit D, Sudhop T, Gouni-Berthold I, Ewig S, Berthold HK, authors. Body fat distribution, serum leptin, and cardiovascular risk factors in men with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2002;122:829–39. [PubMed]
Carotenuto M, Bruni O, Santoro N, Del Giudice EM, Perrone L, Pascotto A, authors. Waist circumference predicts the occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing in obese children and adolescents: a questionnaire-based study. Sleep Med. 2006;7:357–61. [PubMed]
Simpson L, Mukherjee S, Cooper MN, et al., authors. Sex differences in the association of regional fat distribution with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2010;33:467–74. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, et al., authors. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data. 2000;(314):1–27. [PubMed]
Grigg-Damberger M, Gozal D, Marcus CL, et al., authors. The visual scoring of sleep and arousal in infants and children. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:201–40. [PubMed]
Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson AL Jr.; Quan SF, authors; for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: rules, terminology and technical specifications, 1st ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007.
Oliveira FS, Tran WH, Bhatia R, et al., authors. Severity of obstructive sleep apnea predicts autonomic and metabolic dysfunction in obese Hispanic boys. Sleep. 2011;34(Abstract Suppl):A295.
Verhulst SL, Schrauwen N, Haentjens D, et al., authors. Sleep-disordered breathing and the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2007;150:608–12. [PubMed]
Oliveira FMS, Tran WH, Bhatia R, et al., authors. Relationships among autonomic dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea, and insulin resistance in childhood obesity. Auton Neurosci. 2011;163:81.
Inselma LS, Milanese A, Deurloo A, authors. Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1993;16:130–7. [PubMed]
Li AM, Chan D, Wong E, Yin J, Nelson EA, Fok TF, authors. The effects of obesity on pulmonary function. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:361–3. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Redline S, Tishler PV, Schluchter M, Aylor J, Clark K, Graham G, authors. Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in children. Associations with obesity, race, and respiratory problems. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:1527–32. [PubMed]
Mitchell RB, Garetz S, Moore RH, et al., authors. The use of clinical parameters to predict obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in children: the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy (CHAT) Study Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;141:130–6. [PubMed]
Kang KT, Lee PL, Weng WC, Hsu WC, authors. Body weight status and obstructive sleep apnea in children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:920–4.
Bruno E, Alessandrini M, Napolitano B, De Padova A, Di Daniele N, De Lorenzo A, authors. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis of body composition in patients affected by OSAS. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1285–90. [PubMed]
Arens R, Sin S, Nandalike K, et al., authors. Upper airway structure and body fat composition in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:782–7. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Whittle AT, Marshall I, Mortimore IL, Wraith PK, Sellar RJ, Douglas NJ, authors. Neck soft tissue and fat distribution: comparison between normal men and women by magnetic resonance imaging. Thorax. 1999;54:323–8. [PubMed Central][PubMed]
Daniels SR, Khoury PR, Morrison JA, authors. The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: differences by race and gender. Pediatrics. 1997;99:804–7. [PubMed]
Schaefer F, Georgi M, Wühl E, Schärer K, authors. Body mass index and percentage fat mass in healthy German schoolchildren and adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:461–9. [PubMed]
Prentice AM, Jebb SA, authors. Beyond body mass index. Obes Rev. 2001;2:141–7. [PubMed]
Demerath EW, Schubert CM, Maynard LM, et al., authors. Do changes in body mass index percentile reflect changes in body composition in children? Data from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:e487–95. [PubMed]